Temporal clauses: introduced by cum or dum using the indicative show relationships in time.
Cum puer eram, Iohannes Kennedius Praeses fuit.
When I was a boy John Kennedy was President.
Illum librum legit dum uxorem exspectabat.
He read that book while he was waiting for his wife.
1) Circumstantial clauses: introduced by cum (translated “when”), uses subjunctive in past tenses; denotes the circumstances under which the main clause occurs.
Cum Caesar advenerit, Galli anxii erant.
When Caesar arrived the Gauls were nervous.
Cum vocem tuam audiverim laetus eram.
When I heard your voice I was happy.
2) Causal clauses: introduced by cum (translated “since”), uses subjunctive in all tenses; denotes a causal connection between the cum clause and the main clause.
Piratas odimus cum illi porcos nostros sustulerint.
We hate the pirates since they stole our pigs.
Cum Caesar Tyrranus esset, senators eum occiderunt.
Since Caesar was a tyrant, the senators killed him.
3) Concessive clauses: introduced by cum (“although”); denotes an apparent contradiction between clauses (sometimes with tamen, “nevertheless”, in the main clause).
Cum Galli fortes essent Caesar tamen eos vicit.
Although the Gauls were brave Caesar nevertheless defeated them.
Cum porci nostros in silva celati essent, piratae eos sustulerunt.
Although our pigs had been hidden in the forest the pirates stole them.
4) Dum clause of Purpose: dum translated “until” or “for”; an outcome that is intended or anticipated, not when or whether the outcome occurs.
Caesar imperium cedere noluit dum totam Galliam vinceret.
Caesar was unwilling to yield command until he might conquer all Gaul.
Piratae Caesarem in vinculis haberant dum pecuniam reciperent.
The pirates held Caesar in captivity until they might receive the money.
Exercise: Identify the clause and translate.
A = cum temporal B = dum temporal C = dum purpose
D = circumstantial E = causal F = concessive.
_____1. Feminae aquam ducebant dum viri in agris laborabant.
_____2. Cum saccus minimus esset, omnes olivas in eo ponere non
_____3. Cum in Novo Eborico habitabam, mihi canis erat.
_____4. Cum rex sapientissimus esset, errorem graviorem commisit.
_____5. Cum librum Caesaris legeremus, multa discebamus.
_____6. Nos omnes diligenter laborabamus dum magister nos
_____7. Flaccus in agro laborabat dum sol occideret.
_____8. Cum Belgae longe a Provincia essent, fortissimi erant.
_____9. Cum Caesar occisus est Horatius adulescens erat.
_____10. Cum Caesar proconsul factus sit milites laeti erant.
_____11. Cum Caesar multa et bona perfecisset Brutus et Cassius eum
_____12. Quintus contendit dum Romam pervenit.
|Caesar and the Pirates|